The Institut de la statistique du Québec was established by an Act passed by the National Assembly of Québec on June 19, 1998. Under the terms of its Act, the new organization, which can be referred to as "Statistique Québec", is made up of four previously independent administrative bodies or organizations: the Bureau de la statistique du Québec, the Institut de recherche et d’information sur la rémunération, Santé Québec and the personnel of the ministère du Travail assigned to the total compensation survey. In 2009, the Institut de la statistique du Québec celebrated its 10th anniversary.
The Act defines the mission of the Institut as follows:
"The mission of the Institut is to provide reliable and objective statistical information on the situation of Québec as regards all aspects of Québec society for which such information is pertinent.
The Institut shall be the central authority for the production and dissemination of statistical information for the government departments and bodies, except information produced for administrative purposes. The Institut shall be responsible for the carrying out of statistical surveys of general interest."