The Institut de la statistique du Québec was established by an Act passed by the National Assembly of Québec on June 19, 1998. Under the terms of its Act, the new organization, which can be referred to as "Statistique Québec", is made up of four previously independent administrative bodies or organizations: the Bureau de la statistique du Québec, the Institut de recherche et d’information sur la rémunération, Santé Québec and the personnel of the ministère du Travail assigned to the total compensation survey. In 2009, the Institut de la statistique du Québec celebrated its 10th anniversary.
The Act defines the mission of the Institut as follows:
"The Institut de la statistique du Québec is the government body in charge of producing, analyzing and disseminating objective and high-quality official statistical information for Québec. This information enhances knowledge, enlightens debate and supports decision-making by the various players in Québec society."