Methodologie(s)


The purpose of this note is to answer a need that has been expressed many times by stakeholders of the Quebec culture and communications field regarding the evolution in the number of jobs in their industries. Although the data solely concern salaried employees and while it is general knowledge that many cultural industries have a large proportion of self-employed workers, these data do serve to analyse how the infrastructure of many of these industries has evolved since 1991.

The data stem from the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH) conducted by Statistics Canada. From this survey, which covers all industries, we have selected the cultural industries that provide the most reliable data on the number of jobs. They consist of the most developed sectors of culture, such as radio broadcasting, motion pictures, publishing, heritage, entertainment and retail businesses specialising in cultural products.

In order to facilitate the interpretation of these data by comparison, we have indicated the total number of jobs throughout all industries, including all service industries. By the same token, we are also presenting data pertaining to Canada, Ontario, and British Columbia.

Finally, the industries contained in the tables are defined according to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS 2007) as opposed to the Québec Culture and Communications Activity Classification System (QCCACS 2004) which is usually used by the Observatoire de la culture et des communications du Québec. A cross-reference chart between the two classifications of the target industries is appended to this document.

Description of the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH)

The purpose of the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH) is to measure the monthly levels and trends regarding paid salaried employees, payrolls, and paid hours. In point of fact, the SEPH is Canada's only source of detailed information on the total number of paid employees, gross payrolls, and hours worked at industrial, provincial and territorial levels. This survey is produced by combining the results from the Business Payroll Survey (BPS) with the administrative data on payroll deductions from the Canada Revenue Agency.



The target population is composed of all employers in Canada, except those primarily involved in agriculture, fishing and trapping, private household services, religious organisations and military personnel from defence services. The SEPH draws its samples from the Business Register (BR) maintained and updated monthly by the Business Register Division of Statistics Canada and from a list of all businesses registered in the Canada Revenue Agency's Business Number program containing at least one active payroll deduction account.

The statistics compiled by SEPH are based on a census of administrative records for all in-scope establishments with employees that can be found on the Business Register. The use of administrative records helps reduce survey costs and the response burden. They also serve to calculate the data produced by SEPH regarding the total number of paid salaried employees and monthly payrolls. This information includes the majority of small businesses, approximately 93% of all employers in Canada, as well as the largest employers. The sampling is a census, thus always composed of the same units, with the exception of newly created businesses and those ceasing operations during the course of the month.

The concept of salaried employee excludes owners and associates of non-incorporated companies and office personnel engaged in a professional occupation, self-employed workers, non-paid family workers, persons working outside Canada, military personnel, and casual employees for which the employer is not required to fill out a T4 slip.

The Business Payroll Survey (BPS) is updated every month in order to collect the data which serve to calculate the SEPH variables that are not available in the administrative records. They include the weekly component of the gross monthly payrolls and the total number of hours, the allocation of hours, earnings and employment for the three categories of employees: those paid by the hour, those earning a fixed salary, and others (commission workers.)

For the purposes of the BPS, we obtain a stratified sample per province, sub-sector, and size. It is a sampling that is composed of 11,000 establishments that are, to all intents and purposes, in operation. In Canada, the proportion of establishments refusing to provide data for the purposes of the survey is under 1%, while approximately 10% of businesses (usually large businesses) do not return the questionnaire on time thus making it impossible to include it in the estimation process. The purpose of the sample allocation is to maximise the accuracy of the estimated weekly payrolls and the number of total hours in the NAICS sub-sectors throughout Canada, the provinces, and the territories. Finally, the estimations obtained from administrative records are combined with results from the BPS with a view to producing estimations for all SEPH variables.

Estimations for variables that do not originate from administrative records are obtained through regression estimation or estimate ratio. What is more, the survey frame is updated every month to take into account the businesses that enter and exit the market. Sample units are removed from the sampling after 12 months.

Benoit Allaire, Institut de la statistique du Québec, Observatoire de la culture et des communications du Québec.
James O’Connor, Institut de la statistique du Québec, Direction des statistiques économiques et du développement durable.

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Concordance between NAICS 2007 and QCCACS 2004

NAICS 2007 - 5151 Radio and Television Broadcasting

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating broadcasting studios and facilities for the transmission of a variety of radio and television broadcasts, including entertainment, news, talk shows and other programs. These establishments produce, purchase and schedule programs; and generate revenues from the sale of air time to advertisers, from donations and subsidies, or from the sale of programs.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 19202 Radio Stations and Services – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating studios and facilities used for the production and transmission of radio programs intended for affiliated stations or the public. Such transmission, via radio waves, can be retransmitted by cable companies, direct broadcasting satellite services (DBS), FM signal providers, or by any other means of distribution to their clients. Radio stations include AM, FM, and digital broadcasting stations, community and student radios, aboriginal and ethnic stations, low-power radio stations, pay audio services (such as continuous music and audio services sold to shopping centres).

  • QCCACS 2004 - 19203 Radio Networks – This group comprises the organizations established by network operators and the stations serviced by these networks in accordance with an affiliation agreement that stipulates sharing advertising revenues in consideration of air time reserved for network programming. These networks are primarily engaged in transmitting, via radio waves or any other means of distribution, radio broadcasts that are picked up by affiliated stations. Network operators decide upon the programs to offer their affiliated stations and are responsible for their content.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 19204 Television Stations and Services – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing and transmitting, via radio waves, a variety of television programs intended for affiliated stations or the public. These programs may be retransmitted by cable companies, direct broadcast satellite services (DBS), or by any other means of distribution. This group includes mainstream stations, educational television and low-power television stations. Rebroadcast stations are also included in this group

  • QCCACS 2004 - 19205 Television Networks – This group comprises the organizations established by network operators and the stations serviced by these networks in accordance with a contractual agreement that stipulates sharing advertising revenues in consideration of air time reserved for network programming. These networks or establishments are primarily engaged in transmitting, via radio waves or any other means of distribution, diversified television programming to its affiliated stations. Such programming is offered to the public free of charge. Television network operators decide upon the programs they offer to their affiliated stations and are responsible for all programming.

NAICS 2007 - 5152 Pay and Specialty Television

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in broadcasting television programs, in a defined and limited format, via operators of cable and satellite distribution systems. The programming is delivered to subscribers by operators of cable or satellite distribution systems.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 19206 Specialty and Pay Television Services – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing specialty television services and pay television services as defined by the CRTC regulation regarding these services.

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NAICS 2007 - 5121 Motion Picture and Video Industries

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing and/or distributing motion pictures, videos, television programs or commercials; exhibiting motion pictures or providing post-production and related services.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 18204 Film and Audiovisual Producers – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing cinematographic or audiovisual works for motion pictures, television, or advertising. The producers are in charge of the film or television program projects, supervise the financing and administrative activities and can be involved in all stages of the films or television programs, namely the design, production, postproduction, presentation, and broadcasting. This group includes producers affiliated with television networks.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 11204 Media Arts Production Facilities – This group comprises profit-oriented and non-profit establishments primarily engaged in activities that further the production of media art works in an independent context. These establishments provide media artists with equipment and specialized services and resources that allow for the production of art works. This group includes, among others, artist-run centres dedicated to the production of media arts.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 18301 Distributors of Films and Television Programs – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in selling, renting, lending, or exchanging, on a commercial basis, copies of films or television programs, including broadcasting rights, to movie theatres, television stations, or other exhibitors. They are in charge of marketing and promoting the films, making the arrangements for their broadcast, collecting the revenues, and distributing them among the parties sharing in the profit.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 18304 Movie Theatres – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in projecting cinematographic or audiovisual works in movie theatres or outdoors.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 18305 Organizers of Cinematographic and Audiovisual Events – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in organizing cinematographic or audiovisual events. These events are time-limited public events, generally occuring on a recurrent basis, whose programme schedule is mainly composed of cinematographic or audiovisual projections, or of activities aiming to promote cinematographic or audiovisual works.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 18205 Postproduction Studios and Other Services Related to the Production of Films and Television Programs – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing facilities, equipment, and services necessary for the production of cinematographic and audiovisual works intended for motion pictures, television, or advertising. This group includes establishments primarily engaged in providing postproduction services and services to the film and video industries, including specialized postproduction services for films or videos such as editing, film/tape transfers, postsynchronization, subtitling, creating credits, closed captioning, producing graphics and animation, as well as developing and processing motion picture films. Establishments primarily engaged in reproducing videograms are also included in this group.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 18206 Dubbing Studios – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing dubbing services for films or television programs. Dubbing consists in substituting dialog from one language for dialog from another language.

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NAICS 2007 - 5122 Sound Recording Industries

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing and distributing music recordings, publishing music, or providing sound recording and related services.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 15202 Sheet Music Publishers – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing music scores presented in the form of books, pamphlets, or leaflets.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 17201 Sound Recording Producers – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in assuring the development, setup, and financing of a sound recording project. They hold the rights to the fixation of performances and works on master tape for the record project. They are also in charge of retaining the services of the entire project team. This type of establishment may also act as a record company in areas of record development.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 17202 Record Companies and Labels – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in holding the development rights to master tapes, whether from having produced them (and thus having acted as producer), or from having acquired the rights from the producers. These establishments see to the market release of records or other sound recordings, have their own label, and usually have a catalogue.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 17203 Sound Recording Studios – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing the facilities and technical expertise for recording musical performances. These establishments may also provide audio production or postproduction services for creating master tapes as well as audio services for motion picture, television, and video productions.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 17301 Sound Recording Distributors – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in distributing sound recordings to retailers. These establishments act as intermediaries between record companies and sound recording retailers.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 17205 Technical Sound Recording Services n.o.c. – This group comprises all establishments primarily engaged in providing technical sound recording services, aside from record companies, sound recording studios, and establishments engaged in pressing and reproduction activities.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 17910 Sound Recording Establishments n.o.c. – This group comprises establishments that are not part of any other group of field 17 and that are primarily engaged in encouraging the creation, production, distribution, or promotion of sound recordings.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 90201 Music Publishers – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing musical works. This involves representing writers and composers in order to grant, on their behalf, authorizations for the mechanical reproduction or live performance of their musical works, negotiating related fees, collecting revenues, etc. These establishments act as specialized intermediaries between the creators and the market. They own copyrights to the musical works they publish.

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NAICS 2007 - 5111 Newspaper, Periodical, Book and Directory Publishers

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing (or publishing and printing) newspapers, periodicals, books, maps, directories, databases and other works, such as calendars, catalogues and greeting cards.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 15203 Government Publisher – This group refers to the agency that acts as the official publisher for a government. The government publisher publishes books, brochures, and other documents in printed form or in other forms that come from government ministries and agencies.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 15204 School Publishers – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing text books or didactic kits. The purpose of a text book or didactic kit is to support teachers and guide students of preschool, elementary, and secondary levels in their steps toward attaining the objectives defined by their curriculum.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 15205 General Literature Publishers – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing books of all kinds, with the exception of establishments specialized in publishing scientific or technical books (15206). This group includes art publishers. The term “book publishing” refers to the activity that consists in developing and carrying out various operations necessary to the publication of books. The most common of these operations include: the selection or development and processing of a manuscript with a view to publishing it, the establishment of contractual relations with authors, and the management of book marketing efforts.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 15206 Scientific and Technical Publishers – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing books of scientific or technical nature. These books are generally intended for postsecondary education. The term “book publishing” refers to the activity that consists in developing and carrying out various operations necessary to the publication of books. The most common of these operations include: the selection or development and processing of a manuscript with a view to publishing it, the establishment of contractual relations with authors, and the management of book marketing efforts.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 16201 Newspaper Publishers – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in carrying out the operations necessary for the production and distribution of newspapers, such as gathering news, writing columns, features, and editorials, layout work, and selling and preparing advertisements. They can be distributed in printed and/or electronic form.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 16202 Publishers of Printed Periodicals – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in carrying out the operations necessary for the production and distribution of printed periodicals (magazines, journals, cultural periodicals), such as gathering news, writing columns, features, and editorials, layout work, and selling and preparing advertisements. These publications are published more than once a year and less than once a week. Their advertising content does not exceed 70% and they cover topics of general interest or are specially devoted to particular issues such as: legislation, finance, commerce, medicine, fashion, sports, humour, etc. They can be intended for the general public or for specialists.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 11201 Art Work Publishers – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in reproducing art works, in a limited number of copies, from an original mat (plate, negative, molding, etc.). These reproductions, generally numbered and signed by the artist, are originals in themselves. For example, these could be lithographs, photographs, sculptures, or artists books.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 11205 Art Work By-Products Publishers – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in making reproductions of art works or objects bearing the reproduction of art works (posters, cards, jewellery, place mats, etc.). When such activities involve art work that is not in the public domain, the publisher will first obtain a licence from the copyright owner.

  • QCCACS 2004 - Other establishments in the unclassified QCCACS

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NAICS 2007 - 7111 Performing Arts Companies

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing live presentations that involve the performances of actors and actresses, singers, dancers, musical groups and artists, and other performing artists. Examples of establishments in this industry group are theatre companies, dance companies, musical groups and artists, circuses and ice-skating shows.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 12201 Producers of Live Entertainment Shows – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing live entertainment shows in the areas of theatre, opera, music, dance, and variety. These establishments are in charge of organizing and financing these shows; they hire the services of all participants, and own the operating rights to these shows. Producers of live entertainment shows may at times act as presenters of these shows.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 12202 Technical Service Providers – Performing Arts – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing producers or presenters of live entertainment shows or hall lessors with specialized technical services such as stage equipment operators, set carpenters, stage managers, grips, technical directors, dressers, lighting technicians, sound engineers, electricians, props persons, etc.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 90103.02 Singers – This subgroup comprises independent professional artists primarily engaged in singing lyrics of musical works intended to be performed live or recorded. Artists practicing an art on their own account, whose competence is recognized by their peers in their own discipline, and who perform works that are disseminated in a professional context are considered as professional artists.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 90103.03 Musicians – This subgroup comprises independent professional artists primarily engaged in performing musical works intended to be performed live or recorded, using instruments. Artists practicing an art on their own account, whose competence is recognized by their peers in their own discipline, and who perform works that are disseminated in a professional context are considered as professional artists.

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NAICS 2007 - 712 Heritage Institutions

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in preserving and exhibiting objects, sites and natural wonders of historical, cultural and educational value.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 11202 Visual Arts Production Facilities – This group comprises profit-oriented and non-profit establishments primarily engaged in activities that further the production of visual art works. These establishments provide visual artists with equipment and specialized services and resources.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 11301 Artistic Agents and Consultants in Visual Arts, Fine Crafts, and Media Arts – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in representing or managing artists from the visual arts, fine crafts, or media arts. These establishments represent their clients in contract negotiations, manage or organize the client’s financial affairs, and generally promote the careers of their clients. This group also comprises establishments or independent individuals specialized in visual arts, fine crafts, or media arts who sell their services as consultants to clients (individuals or institutions) for various purposes (art work evaluation, documentary search, catalogue preparation, etc).

  • QCCACS 2004 - 11302 Artist-Run Centres Dedicated to Visual Arts Dissemination – This group comprises establishments generally identified as “artist-run centres” i.e. nonprofit organizations, directed by a board of directors consisting of a majority of artists, whose main function is to further research, dissemination, and animation in the visual arts field. They also further creation in the visual arts field and provide artistic production residency and community activities such as exhibitions, conferences, debates, performances, publications, and documentation.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 13201.06 Heritage Agencies n.o.c. – This subgroup comprises establishments that are not part of any other group of field 13 and that are primarily engaged in operating, maintaining, preserving, and protecting heritage assets. These include establishments operating, preserving, maintaining, or protecting heritage forms such as linguistic heritage, technical and scientific heritage, and natural, fauna, or flora heritage. This group includes agencies dedicated to researching and protecting the French language and agencies whose mission consist in studying and preserving ancient seeds or certain animal species.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 13910 Heritage, Museum Institutions, and Archives Establishments n.o.c. – This group comprises establishments that are not part of any other group of field 13 and that are primarily engaged in encouraging the creation, production, dissemination, or distribution of heritage, museum, or archival assets.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 13203.01 Art Museums – This subgroup comprises non-profit permanent establishments primarily engaged in researching, acquiring, preserving, and managing collections of art works, while performing enhancement, education, and dissemination functions through the presentation of public exhibitions, the organization of cultural and educational activities, or the production of publications. Art museums collections include art works related to the fine arts, whether ancient, modern, or contemporary art, such as drawings, prints, paintings, photographs, sculptures, films, architectural pieces, etc., as well as media art works and decorative art works such as jewellery, woodcrafts, ceramics, costumes, designs, enamelware, graphic designs, ivory, games/toys, metalworks, furniture, mosaic, goldsmithing/silversmithing, glassware, stained glass, etc.).

  • QCCACS 2004 - 13203.02 History, Ethnology, and Archaeology Museums – This subgroup comprises non-profit permanent establishments primarily engaged in researching, acquiring, preserving, and managing collections marking the history of humanity on a given territory, while performing enhancement, education, and dissemination functions through the presentation of public exhibitions, the organization of cultural and educational activities, or the production of publications. These collections present specific aspects of humankind from a historical, ethnological, archaeological, or anthropological point of view. History and ethnology museums often specialize in the presentation of heritage objects of a religious, ethnic, military, or economic nature or related to folk culture. Archaeology museums distinguish themselves by the fact that their collections come partly or totally from digs. Thus, this subgroup comprises museums with collections of historical artefacts or archaeological remains, military museums, naval or sea museums, regional history museums, institutional or religious history museums, memorial museums, historical figures museums, ecomuseums, folk arts and traditions museums, Amerindian, Inuit, and other cultures museums, as well as historical and/or prehistorical archaeology museums.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 13203.03 Natural and Environmental Sciences Museums – This subgroup comprises non-profit permanent establishments primarily engaged in researching, acquiring, preserving, and managing collections related to one or several natural sciences disciplines such as biology, geology, botany, zoology, paleontology, and ecology, while performing enhancement, education, and dissemination functions through the presentation of public exhibitions, the organization of cultural and educational activities, or the production of publications. These collections may include non-living specimens, namely related to geology and paleontology, and living specimens specific to zoological gardens, aquariums, vivariums, botanical gardens, arboretums, and greenhouses.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 13203.04 Science and Technology Museums – This subgroup comprises non-profit permanent establishments primarily engaged in researching, acquiring, preserving, and managing collections related to one or several hard or technical sciences, while performing enhancement, education, and dissemination functions through the presentation of public exhibitions, the organization of cultural and educational activities, or the production of publications. Thus, this subgroup includes museums with collections related to astronomy, physics, chemistry, and other technical sciences; medical sciences; engineering; construction, transport, communications, and energy technologies, etc. Planetariums and scientific centres are also included in this subgroup.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 13204.01 History, Ethnology, and Archaeology Interpretation SitesThis subgroup comprises non-profit permanent establishments primarily engaged in research, education, and cultural activities as well as in the dissemination and enhancement of specific themes related to history (including art history and architecture history), ethnology, or archaeology, by presenting public exhibitions, organizing cultural and educational activities, or producing publications. When it is affiliated to a heritage site, the interpretation site is also mandated to promote the value of the site and the necessity to protect it. In general, themes developed at history, ethnology, and archaeology interpretation sites are related to material or non-material testimonies of the life of a community. History, ethnology, and archaeology interpretation sites include interpretation centres, heritage sites, historic places, archaeological places, historic sites or buildings and their contents, preserved as close as possible to their original state, in order to tangibly testify of a historic event or of a historical figure, lifestyle, or activity related to them. This subgroup may also include churches providing interpretation activities. It also comprises non-profit heritage assets Economuseums®; a place where artisans demonstrate their expertise, produce heritage-related assets following traditional techniques and sell their productions, thus ensuring the complete financing of their operations.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 13204.02 Natural and Environmental Sciences Interpretation Sites – This subgroup comprises non-profit permanent establishments primarily engaged in research, education, and cultural activities as well as in the dissemination and enhancement of specific themes related to natural and environmental sciences by presenting public exhibitions, organizing cultural and educational activities, or producing publications. The themes developed at natural and environmental interpretation sites focus on one or several disciplines such as biology, geology, botany, zoology, paleontology, and ecology. This subgroup comprises, among others, nature interpretation centres dedicated to the knowledge of fauna and/or flora found on a given territory.
  • QCCACS 2004 - 13204.03 Science and Technology Interpretation Sites – This subgroup comprises non-profit permanent establishments primarily engaged in research, education, and cultural activities as well as in the dissemination and enhancement of specific themes related to one or several hard or technical sciences by presenting public exhibitions, organizing cultural and educational activities, or producing publications. The themes developed at science and technology interpretation sites focus on one or several disciplines such as astronomy, physics, chemistry, or other technical sciences; medical sciences; engineering; construction, transport, communications, and energy technologies, etc. This subgroup includes, among others, observatories and industrial heritage interpretation sites.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 13205 Exhibition Centres – This group comprises non-profit permanent establishments primarily engaged in research, education, and cultural activities while performing enhancement, education, and dissemination functions through the presentation of temporary exhibitions and the organization of educational and cultural activities focusing mainly on art. In general, these establishments do not own permanent collections. Some establishments are also mandated to present history and science exhibitions.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 13206 Profit-oriented Museum Institutions – This group comprises profit-oriented establishments primarily engaged in museum-related activities such as researching, acquiring, preserving, enhancing, or disseminating various collections as well as providing education. This group namely includes museums, zoological gardens, and profit-oriented heritage assets Economuseums®.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 90302 Multi-field Venues Dedicated to the Presentation of Cultural Events – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in presenting different types of cultural activities to the population such as live performances, exhibitions, and projections within a same program schedule. This group includes certain maisons de la culture and municipal cultural centres

  • QCCACS 2004 - 90306 Independent Curators – This group comprises independent museology, heritage, or art specialists primarily engaged in organizing exhibitions on a contractual basis, on behalf of institutions or corporations such as museums, exhibition centres, or artist-run centres.

  • QCCACS 2004 - Other establishments in the unclassified QCCACS

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NAICS 2007 - 5175 Cable and Other Program Distribution (NAICS 2002)

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in distributing television and radio programs, to subscribers, via cable or satellite distribution systems. These establishments deliver programming that originates from television and radio broadcasters, and pay and specialty channels. These establishments may also provide other services, such as interactive television, information services and tele-banking services.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 19301 Cable Distributors – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in receiving and assembling signals from radio stations, television stations, speciality services, and pay services in order to retransmit them to their subscribers in encrypted or non-encrypted mode. Distribution is achieved via coaxial cable, fiber optic cable and/or any other type of cable. These establishments can offer interactive programming services, alphanumeric channels (still images), advertising channels, and classified ads channels to their subscribers. On account of their hybrid character, these establishments comprise the community television stations of their networks, which they finance in whole or in part, whether they create their own programming or have it done by a community television group. This category also includes special programming services whose programming content falls under the responsibility of the cable distributors.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 19302 Satellite Broadcasting Distributors – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in gathering, assembling, and distributing signals from radio stations, television stations, specialty services, and pay television services via high powered geostationary satellites. This group includes direct broadcasting satellite services (DBS) that send signals directly to the final reception point and distributors providing programming services via satellite relay to other distributors.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 19303 Microwave Broadcasting Distributors – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in receiving and assembling, through the use of antennas and receiving equipment, the signals from radio stations, television stations, specialty services, and pay services in order to retransmit them via microwave to subscribers who have a small antenna that is in the line-of-sight of the retransmission site. These signals, distributed over short distances, may be in digital or analog mode, encrypted or not. This group also includes multipoint distribution services (MMDS) using higher frequencies and distributors using microwave relay to distribute programming services to other distributors.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 19304 Other Broadcasting Distribution Establishments – This group comprises establishments that are not part of any other group of field 19 and that are primarily engaged in retransmitting, via radio waves or any other means of telecommunication, radio or television programs, or specialty and pay television services, whether encrypted or not, to a final reception point or to another distributor. This group includes master antenna television systems (MATV), radiocommunication distribution establishments, subscription television (STV), multi-channel television establishments, closed circuit video programming services and Internet broadcasting distribution establishments.

NAICS 2007 - 4512 Book, Periodical and Music Stores

This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new books, newspapers, magazines, and audio and video recordings.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 15303 Bookstores – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in selling new books to the public. It includes, among others, accredited bookstores, chain bookstores, specialized bookstores as well as college and university bookstores.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 17302 Record Stores – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing new or used sound recordings, regardless of their format or medium.

  • QCCACS 2004 - 90301 Superstore Retailers - Cultural Products – This group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing many types of cultural products. In general, these establishments have more floor space than bookstores (15303) or record stores (17302) while providing specialized sales services to consumers.

1. n.o.c.: not otherwise classified.
Update: January 21, 2010

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