Human resources in science and technology

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Until the early 1990s, the measurement of scientific and technological activities was almost exclusively limited to research and development (R&D). To address the need for new indicators, the OECD developed guidelines for the collection and analysis of data on human resources in science and technology (HRST), known as the Canberra Manual. According to these guidelines, HRST include people who successfully completed education at the third level and people who are employed in a scientific or technical occupation where third-level qualifications are normally required.